Scientific and Professional Information


Boost the run. Protect the body.

Find out about scientific studies, articles and testimonials from medical and sports professionals, including athletes, who demonstrate the advantages of using compression stockings in running and other sports.

What the Doctors Say

Articles and opinions from professionals (Doctors specializing in Vascular Surgery and Angiology) on the scientifically proven benefits of graduated compression stockings

"The concept of compression therapy is based on a simple and efficient mechanical principle: the application of an elastic fabric around the leg. By wrapping the leg with graduated compression - strongest at the ankle and decreasing along the leg - the compression stocking Compression aids venous return by lowering venous pressure, preventing venous stasis and deterioration of vein walls, and efficiently relieves tired, heavy legs by helping the body move blood against the force of gravity (...). If there are no contraindications such as severe arterial insufficiency, then lower grade compression stockings can be purchased without a prescription."

Translation of the article “Compression therapy principles”,

"The recommendations of the International Consensus Conference on Compression Therapy, published in 2004, clearly defined the use of compression stockings for medical purposes. These recommendations reviewed the literature on the subject and validated their effectiveness for several indications: Chronic venous insufficiency, varicose veins, edema, deep vein thrombosis and trophic disturbance with venous ulcers are some of them."

Translation of the article “Compression Therapy – International consensus documents guidelines according to scientific evidence” - – F.Vin, JP Benigni, International Angiology, 2004.

What Sports Medicine professionals say

Studies, articles and opinions by Doctors specializing in Sports Medicine, Physiatrists and Physiotherapists on the benefits of using compression stockings in the practice of sports activities

"Eleven highly trained male runners participated in three simulated trail races (...). The effect of wearing CM (compression stockings) during the race or during recovery was tested and compared to a control (or (ie, running and recovery with and without CM). Indicators of muscle function, muscle fatigue (creatine kinase; CK), inflammation (interleukin-6; IL-6), and perceived muscle soreness were recorded at baseline (1 h before warm-up) and 1, 24 and 48 h after the race.

Perceived muscle soreness was likely to be lower when participants wore CM during trail running compared to the control condition (1 h post-run, 82% probability; 24 h post-run, 80% probability). A likely or possibly beneficial effect of using CM during running was also found for peak peak strength 1 h post-run (70% probability) and 24 h post-run (60% probability) and throughout the running period. recovery in the jump with countermovement, in comparison with the non-use of CM (...). CONCLUSION: Using CM during simulated trail running significantly alters pain perception and leg muscle function. These benefits are visible soon after the start of the recovery period."

Translation of the article “Effect of Wearing Compression Stockings on Recovery After Mild Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage”, International Journal of Sports Physiology & Performance, 2014 Mar;9(2):256-64
Authors: Bieuzen F, Brisswalter J, Easthope C, Vercruyssen F, Bernard T, Hausswirth C.

"62 competitive runners who regularly participate in endurance events volunteered for this study. Following standard measurements, runners completed a 56 km road race and were followed for 3 consecutive days after the race (...). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the use of graduated compression stockings during prolonged exercise may accelerate recovery after running by decreasing muscle damage to the body."

Translation of the article “The Effectiveness Of Compression Socks To Minimize Skeletal Muscle Damage During And After An Ultra-Marathon”, Journal: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 42, 2010
Authors: Karen E. Welman, Elmarie Terblanche

“Using an in-group study design, 21 moderately trained athletes (39.3+/-10.9 years) with no leg problems were randomly assigned to perform a treadmill step running test to their voluntary maximum limit. with and without below knee compression stockings. The second treadmill test was completed within 10 days of recovery (...). Running performance up to anaerobic threshold (lactate minimum + 1.5 mmolxL) (14.11 vs 13.90 kmxh, ES: 0.22) and aerobic threshold (lactate minimum + 0.5 mmolxL) (13.02 vs 12.74 kmxh, ES: 0.28 ) was significantly higher with the use of compression stockings. Therefore, constant compression of the calf muscle area significantly improved running performance at different metabolic thresholds (...)."

Translation of the article “Effect of compression stockings on running performance in men runners”, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2009 Jan;23(1):101-5.
Authors: Kemmler W, von Stengel S, Köckritz C, Mayhew J, Wassermann A, Zapf J.

What Sports Professionals Say

Articles, opinions and testimonials from professionals (Athletes, Coaches, Teachers and Manufacturers) on the use of compression stockings in the practice of sports activities, especially in Running

"Just my opinion, but for most distance runners I think the most likely benefit would be a reduction in pain or muscle problems, even more so than improved blood circulation. For marathon and long distance races , any muscle problem can interfere with muscle contraction or the amount of recruitable fibers, thus limiting performance. In addition, with the lower leg muscles in particular, muscle problems can limit the utilization of elastic energy and shorten the stretch cycle We've all felt the effect of a 10K run in athletic shoes and what it does to our muscles. If this damage can be limited during the run or even after training, then performance or at least our recovery from running or training can be improved."

Translation of the article “Compression Socks”,, July 2010
Author: Steve Magness – Cross Country Coach at the University of Houston, USA. Professional runner trainer. Author of the book “Science of Running”.

“I have been frequently recommending to my clients the use of compression stockings for physical exercise, especially when we are talking about a practice that involves considerable use of the lower limbs (Example: running or bodybuilding for the lower limbs). Not only do I recommend it, when I am a frequent user of this type of equipment. There are many benefits that have also been proven through some scientific studies. We can divide them into two groups:

Physiological Benefits – The compression exerted will facilitate venous return. When the blood supplies the muscles with the necessary oxygen, it then has to rise again to remove substances that come from metabolism, such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid. For several reasons, but mainly due to the action of gravity, blood tends to accumulate in the legs. The compression will provide an important help for the blood to rise faster, facilitating the entire cardiorespiratory system. Compression is even more important when dealing with someone with peripheral vascularization problems (eg people with varicose veins problems).
Mechanical Benefits – Compression will keep the muscles “in place” and aligned, preventing muscle vibration. Thus, with this equipment we guarantee that the muscles remain aligned with the muscular traction line, optimizing the mechanical efficiency in the muscle. In addition, it minimizes muscle vibration that causes discomfort and sometimes even pain in the calves. It is advisable to avoid this vibration, especially in people who run for a long time or people who have bulky muscle mass at the level of the calves.

In addition, there is also the obvious thermal benefit, associated with the simple fact that the stocking protects the muscles of the lower limbs, keeping them at an ideal temperature for the practice of physical exercise. All these advantages will cause less muscle pain to occur during and after training/race, leading to increased performance and better recovery due to increased tolerance for effort.”

Author: Tiago Pereira - Degree in Sports Science, Exercise and Health (Faculty of Human Motricity). Postgraduate in Management of Gyms and Health Clubs (Universidade Lusófona). Health and Fitness Specialist (American College of Sports Medicine). Personal Trainer and Technical Director of Health Club H2Ovita. Co-author of the blog Proactive Project

"Our feet are amazing structures. They are the support for our running. With countless moving parts, our feet are made up of 26 small bones (25% of the bones in our body are in the feet). over 100 muscles.

The foundation for runners starts with our socks (which are often overlooked). For the past three years, I've been wearing graduated compression stockings that wrap around my calves."

Translation of the article “Feet Are The Foundation”, , May 2012
Author: David O'Meara – World-renowned coach, speaker, author and athlete. David O'Meara websites: /